Physiology Lab

PHYSIOLOGY- I

CREDIT HOURS 3 (2-1)
COURSE DESCRIPTION:

The course is designed to study the function of the human body at the molecular, cellular, tissue and systems levels. The major underlying themes are: the mechanisms for promoting homeostasis; cellular processes of metabolism, membrane function and cellular signaling; the mechanisms that match supply of nutrients to tissue demands at different activity levels; the mechanisms that match the rate of excretion of waste products to their rate of production; the mechanisms that defend the body against injury and promote healing. These topics are addressed by a consideration of nervous and endocrine regulation of the cardiovascular, hematopoietic, pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal systems including the control of cellular metabolism. The integrative nature of physiological responses in normal function and disease is stressed throughout the course. This course will sever as pre requisite for the further courses i.e. exercise physiology, pathology, etc.

BASIC AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY

  • Functional organization of human body
  • Homeostasis
  • Control systems in the body
  • Cell membrane and its functions
  • Cell organelles and their functions
  • Genes control and function

NERVE AND MUSCLE

  • Structure and function of neuron
  • Physiological properties of nerve fibers
  • Physiology of action potential
  • Conduction of nerve impulse
  • Nerve degeneration and regeneration.
  • Synapses
  • Physiological structure of muscle,
  • Skeletal muscle contraction,
  • Skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle contraction.
  • Neuromuscular junction and transmission,
  • Excitation contraction coupling,
  • Structure and function of motor unit

Clinical Module

  1. 1. Perform nerve conduction studies and explain their clinical importance
  2. Myopathies and neuropathies 3. Peripheral nerve injuries

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

  • Heart and circulation
  • Function of cardiac muscle
  • Cardiac pacemaker and cardiac muscle contraction
  • Cardiac cycle
  • ECG recording and interpretation
  • Common arrhythmias and its mechanism of development
  • Types of blood vessels and their function
  • Haemodynamics of blood flow (local control systemic circulation its regulation and control). Peripheral resistance its regulation and effect on circulation
  • Arterial pulse
  • Blood pressure and its regulation
  • Cardiac output and its control
  • Heart sounds and murmurs Importance in circulation and control of venous return. 21
  • Coronary circulation Â·Splanchnic, pulmonary and cerebral circulation
  • Triple response and cutaneous circulation
  • Foetal circulation and circulatory changes at birth

Clinical Module

  1. Clinical significance of cardiac cycle, correlation of ECG and heart sounds to cardiac cycle
  2. Clinical significance of cardiac cycle, interpretation of ischemia and arrhythmias
  3. Effects of hypertension
  4. Clinical significance of heart sounds
  5. Effects of ischemia
  6. Shock
PRACTICAL
  • Cardiovascular System
  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (to be coordinated with the department of medicine)
  • Examination of arterial pulse
  • ECG recording and interpretation
  • Arterial blood pressure
  • Effects of exercise and posture on blood pressure
  • Apex beat and normal heart sounds
RECOMMENDED TEXT BOOKS
  1. Textbook of Physiology by Guyton and Hall, Latest Ed.
  2. Review of Medical Physiology by William F. Ganong, Latest Ed.
  3. Physiology by Berne and Levy, Latest Ed.
  4. Human Physiology: The Basis of Medicine by Gillian Pocock, Christopher D. Richards
  5. Physiological Basis of Medical Practice by John B. West and Taylor, 12th Ed.