Anatomy Lab

ANATOMY- I

CREDIT HOURS 4 (3-1)
COURSE DESCRIPTION:

The focus of this course is an in-depth study and analysis of the regional and systemic organization of the body. Emphasis is placed upon structure and function of human movement. A comprehensive study of human anatomy with emphasis on the nervous, musculoskeletal, and circulatory systems is incorporated. Introduction to general anatomy lays the foundation of the course. Dissection and identification of structures in the cadaver supplemented with the study of charts, models, prosecuted materials and radiographs are utilized to identify anatomical landmarks and configurations of the upper limb and thoracic region.

CELL BIOLOGY

GENERAL ANATOMY:

  • Terms related to position and movements
  • The skin and subcutaneous tissues
  • Layers of skin
  • Integuments of skin
  • Glands associated with hair follicle
  • Microscopic picture of skin

BONES AND CARTILAGES:

  • Osteology
  • Functions of Bones
  • Classification of bones
  • Parts of developing long bones
  • Blood supply of bones
  • Lymphatic vessels & nerve supply
  • Rule of direction of nutrient foramen
  • Gross structure of long bone
  • Surface marking 16
  • Cartilage
  • Development of bone and cartilage
  • Microscopic picture of cartilage and bone

THE MUSCLE

  • Introduction
  • Histological Classification
  • Functions of muscles in general
  • Type of skeletal muscles
  • Parts of skeletal muscle and their action Â·Nomenclature.
  • Microscopic picture of muscle

STRUCTURES RELATED TO MUSCLES & BONES:

  • Tendons
  • Aponeurosis
  • Fasciae
  • Synovial bursae
  • Tendon Synovial sheaths
  • Raphaes
  • Ligaments
  • Condyle
  • Epicongyle
  • Ridge
  • Tuberosity
  • Tubercle
  • Foramen
  • Canal
  • Groove
  • Process
  • Spur

THE JOINTS

  • Introduction
  • Functional classifications
  • Structural classification
  • Structures comprising a Synovial joint
  • Movements of joints
  • Blood supply of Synovial joints, their nerve supply and lymphatic drainage
  • Factors responsible for joint stability.
  • Development of joints

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

  • Definition 17
  • Division of circulatory system into pulmonary & systemic
  • Classification of blood vessels and their microscopic picture
  • Heart and its histology
  • Function of the Heart
  • Anastomosis

NERVOUS SYSTEM

  • Definition
  • Outline of cellular architecture
  • Classification of nervous system
  • Parts of the central nervous system
  • Microscopic picture of cerebrum, cerebellum, spinal cord
  • Functional components of a nerve
  • Typical spinal nerve
  • Microscopic picture of nerve
  • Introduction of autonomic nervous system
  • Anatomy of neuromuscular junction
UPPER LIMB

OSTEOLOGY

  • Detailed description of all bones of upper limb and shoulder girdle along their musculature and ligamentous attachments.

MYOLOGY

  • Muscles connecting upper limb to the axial skeletal
  • Muscles around shoulder joint
  • Walls and contents of axilla
  • Muscles in brachial region Â·Muscles of forearm
  • Muscles of hand.
  • Retinacula,
  • Palmar apouenrosis
  • Flexor tendon dorsal digital expansion

NEUROLOGY

  • Course, distribution and functions of all nerves of upper limb
  • Brachial plexus

ANGIOLOGY (CIRCULATION)

  • Course and distribution of all arteries and veins of upper limb.
  • Lymphatic drainage of the upper limb
  • Axillary lymph node Â·Cubital fossa 18

ARTHROLOGY

  • Acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joints
  • Shoulder joint
  • Elbow joint
  • Wrist joint
  • Radioulnar joints
  • Inter carpal joints
  • Joints MCP and IP
  • Surface Anatomy of upper limb
  • Surface marking of upper limb

DEMONSTARIONS

  • Demonstration on Shoulder joint, attached muscles and articulating surfaces.
  • Demonstration on Elbow joint
  • Demonstration on Wrist joint
  • Demonstration on Radioulnar joint
  • Demonstration on MCP and IP joints
  • Demonstration on acromioclavicular joint
  • Demonstration on sternoclavicular joint
  • Demonstration on Brachial plexus
  • Demonstration of blood supply of brain
  • Demonstration on Structure of bones
THORAX

STRUCTURES OF THE THORACIC WALL

  • Dorsal spine (Vertebrae)
  • Sternum
  • Costal Cartilages & Ribs
  • Intercostal Muscles
  • Intercostal Nerves
  • Diaphragm Â·Blood supply of thoracic wall
  • Lymphatic drainage of thoracic wall
  • Joints of thorax

THORACIC CAVITY

  • Mediastinum
  • Pleura
  • Trachea
  • Lungs
  • Bronchopulmonary segments
  • Pericardium
  • Heart– Its blood supply, venous drainage & nerve supply 19
  • Large veins of thorax, superior and in-ferior vena cava., pulmonary veins brachiocephalic veins
  • Large Arteries – Aorta & its branches
PRACTICAL

During study of Gross Anatomy, emphasis should be given on applied aspect, radiological anatomy, surface anatomy and cross-sectional anatomy of the region covered in the respective semester /year

RECOMMENDED TEXT BOOKS
  1. Gray’s Anatomyby Prof. Susan Standing 39th Ed., Elsevier.
  2. Clinical Anatomy for Medical Studentsby Richard S. Snell.
  3. Clinically Oriented Anatomyby Keith Moore.
  4. Clinical Anatomyby R. J. Last, Latest Ed.
  5. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomyby G. J. Romanes, 15th Ed., Vol-I, II and III.
  6. The Developing Human. Clinically Oriented Embryologyby Keith L. Moore, 6th Ed.
  7. Wheater’s Functional Histologyby Young and Heath, Latest Ed.
  8. Medical Histologyby Prof. Laiq Hussain.
  9. Neuroanatomyby Richard S. Snell.